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Table 4d. Interferons: Selected Clinical Trial Data

Last Updated: December 20, 2023

The clinical trials described in this table do not represent all the trials that the Panel reviewed while developing the recommendations for interferons. The studies summarized below are the randomized controlled trials that have had the greatest impact on the Panel’s recommendations.

Table 4d. Interferons: Selected Clinical Trial Data
Table 4d. Interferons: Selected Clinical Trial Data


  1. Kalil AC, Mehta AK, Patterson TF, et al. Efficacy of interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir compared with remdesivir alone in hospitalised adults with COVID-19: a double-bind, randomised, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2021;9(12):1365-1376. Available at:
  2. WHO Solidarity Trial Consortium. Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19—interim WHO Solidarity trial results. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(6):497-511. Available at:
  3. Ader F, Peiffer-Smadja N, Poissy J, et al. An open-label randomized controlled trial of the effect of lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir plus IFN-beta-1a and hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021;27(12):1826-1837. Available at:
  4. Reis G, Moreira Silva EAS, Medeiros Silva DC, et al. Early treatment with pegylated interferon lambda for COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2023;388(6):518-528. Available at:
  5. Jagannathan P, Andrews JR, Bonilla H, et al. Peginterferon lambda-1a for treatment of outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Nat Commun. 2021;12(1):1967. Available at:
  6. Feld JJ, Kandel C, Biondi MJ, et al. Peginterferon lambda for the treatment of outpatients with COVID-19: a Phase 2, placebo-controlled randomised trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2021;9(5):498-510. Available at: