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Table 7b. Ivermectin: Selected Clinical Trial Data

Last Updated: December 20, 2023

The clinical trials described in this table are RCTs that had the greatest impact on the Panel’s recommendation. The Panel reviewed other clinical studies of IVM for the treatment of COVID-19.1-26 However, those studies have limitations that make them less definitive and informative than the studies summarized in the table.

Table 7b. Ivermectin: Selected Clinical Trial Data
Table 7b. Ivermectin: Selected Clinical Trial Data


  1. Spoorthi V, Sasank S. Utility of ivermectin and doxycycline combination for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Int Arch Integrated Med. 2020;7(10):117-182. Available at:
  2. Camprubí D, Almuedo-Riera A, Martí-Soler H, et al. Lack of efficacy of standard doses of ivermectin in severe COVID-19 patients. PLoS One. 2020;15(11):e0242184. Available at:
  3. Bhattacharya R, Ray I, Mukherjee R, et al. Observational study on clinical features, treatment and outcome of COVID-19 in a tertiary care centre in India—a retrospective case series. Int J Sci Res. 2020;9(10):69-71. Available at:
  4. Morgenstern J, Redondo JN, De León A, et al. The use of compassionate ivermectin in the management of symptomatic outpatients and hospitalized patients with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 at the Medical Center Bournigal and the Medical Center Punta Cana, Rescue Group, Dominican Republic, from May 1 to August 10, 2020. medRxiv. 2020;Preprint. Available at:
  5. Cadegiani FA, Goren A, Wambier CG, McCoy J. Early COVID-19 therapy with azithromycin plus nitazoxanide, ivermectin or hydroxychloroquine in outpatient settings significantly improved COVID-19 outcomes compared to known outcomes in untreated patients. New Microbes New Infect. 2021;43:100915. Available at:
  6. Carvallo H, Roberto H, Eugenia FM. Safety and efficacy of the combined use of ivermectin, dexamethasone, enoxaparin and aspirin against COVID 19. medRxiv. 2020;Preprint. Available at:
  7. Bukhari KHS, Asghar A, Perveen N, et al. Efficacy of ivermectin in COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate disease. medRxiv. 2021;Preprint. Available at:
  8. Elalfy H, Besheer T, El-Mesery A, et al. Effect of a combination of nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and ivermectin plus zinc supplement (MANS.NRIZ study) on the clearance of mild COVID-19. J Med Virol. 2021;93(5):3176-3183. Available at:
  9. Chahla RE, Ruiz LM, Mena T, et al. Cluster randomised trials—ivermectin repurposing for COVID-19 treatment of outpatients with mild disease in primary health care centers. Research Square. 2021;Preprint. Available at:
  10. Tanioka H, Tanioka S, Kaga K. Why COVID-19 is not so spread in Africa: how does ivermectin affect it? medRxiv. 2021;Preprint. Available at:
  11. Roy S, Samajdar SS, Tripathi SK, Mukherjee S, Bhattacharjee K. Outcome of different therapeutic interventions in mild COVID-19 patients in a single OPD clinic of West Bengal: a retrospective study. medRxiv. 2021;Preprint. Available at:
  12. Shahbaznejad L, Davoudi A, Eslami G, et al. Effects of ivermectin in patients with COVID-19: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Clin Ther. 2021;43(6):1007-1019. Available at:
  13. Roman YM, Burela PA, Pasupuleti V, et al. Ivermectin for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2022;74(6):1022-1029. Available at:
  14. Ahmed S, Karim MM, Ross AG, et al. A five-day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may reduce the duration of illness. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;103:214-216. Available at:
  15. Chaccour C, Casellas A, Blanco-Di Matteo A, et al. The effect of early treatment with ivermectin on viral load, symptoms and humoral response in patients with non-severe COVID-19: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. EClinicalMedicine. 2021;32:100720. Available at:
  16. Chachar AZK, Khan KA, Asif M, et al. Effectiveness of ivermectin in SARS-COV-2/COVID-19 patients. Int J Sci. 2020;9:31-35. Available at:
  17. Gonzalez JLB, Gámez MG, Enciso EAM, et al. Efficacy and safety of ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19: a randomized controlled trial. Infect Dis Rep. 2022;14(2):160-168. Available at:
  18. Hashim HA, Maulood MF, Ali CL, et al. Controlled randomized clinical trial on using ivermectin with doxycycline for treating COVID-19 patients in Baghdad, Iraq. Iraqi J Med Sci. 2021;29(1):107-115. Available at:
  19. Khan MSI, Debnath CR, Nath PN, et al. Ivermectin treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. Arch Bronconeumol (Engl Ed). 2020;56(12):828-830. Available at:
  20. Krolewiecki A, Lifschitz A, Moragas M, et al. Antiviral effect of high-dose ivermectin in adults with COVID-19: a proof-of-concept randomized trial. EClinicalMedicine. 2021;37:100959. Available at:
  21. Okumuş N, Demirtürk N, Çetinkaya RA, et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of adding ivermectin to treatment in severe COVID-19 patients. BMC Infect Dis. 2021;21(1):411. Available at:
  22. Podder CS, Chowdhury N, Sina MI, Mohosin Ul Haque WM. Outcome of ivermectin treated mild to moderate COVID-19 cases: a single-centre, open-label, randomised controlled study. IMC J Med Sci. 2021;14(2). Available at:
  23. Soto-Becerra P, Culquichicón C, Hurtado-Roca Y, Araujo-Castillo RV. Real-world effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and ivermectin among hospitalized COVID-19 patients: results of a target trial emulation using observational data from a nationwide healthcare system in Peru. medRxiv. 2020;Preprint. Available at:
  24. Rajter JC, Sherman MS, Fatteh N, et al. Use of ivermectin is associated with lower mortality in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019: the ivermectin in COVID nineteen study. Chest. 2021;159(1):85-92. Available at:
  25. Chowdhury ATMM, Shahbaz M, Karim MR, et al. A comparative study on ivermectin-doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin therapy on COVID-19 patients. EJMO. 2021;5(1):63-70. Available at:
  26. Niaee MS, Namdar P, Allami A, et al. Ivermectin as an adjunct treatment for hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients: a randomized multi-center clinical trial. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2021;14(6):266-273. Available at:
  27. Naggie S, Boulware DR, Lindsell CJ, et al. Effect of higher-dose ivermectin for 6 days vs placebo on time to sustained recovery in outpatients with COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2023;329(11):888-897. Available at:
  28. Naggie S, Boulware DR, Lindsell CJ, et al. Effect of ivermectin vs placebo on time to sustained recovery in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2022;328(16):1595-1603. Available at:
  29. TOGETHER Investigators. Effect of early treatment with ivermectin among patients with COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(18):1721-1731. Available at:
  30. Bramante CT, Huling JD, Tignanelli CJ, et al. Randomized trial of metformin, ivermectin, and fluvoxamine for COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2022;387(7):599-610. Available at:
  31. Vallejos J, Zoni R, Bangher M, et al. Ivermectin to prevent hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19 (IVERCOR-COVID19) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. BMC Infect Dis. 2021;21(1):635. Available at:
  32. López-Medina E, López P, Hurtado IC, et al. Effect of ivermectin on time to resolution of symptoms among adults with mild COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021;325(14):1426-1435. Available at:
  33. Lim SCL, Hor CP, Tay KH, et al. Efficacy of ivermectin treatment on disease progression among adults with mild to moderate COVID-19 and comorbidities: the I-TECH randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2022;182(4):426-435. Available at:
  34. Buonfrate D, Chesini F, Martini D, et al. High-dose ivermectin for early treatment of COVID-19 (COVER study): a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase II, dose-finding, proof-of-concept clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2022;59(2):106516. Available at:
  35. Abd-Elsalam S, Noor RA, Badawi R, et al. Clinical study evaluating the efficacy of ivermectin in COVID-19 treatment: a randomized controlled study. J Med Virol. 2021;93(10):5833-5838. Available at:
  36. Ravikirti, Roy R, Pattadar C, et al. Evaluation of ivermectin as a potential treatment for mild to moderate COVID-19: a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial in Eastern India. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2021;24:343-350. Available at:
  37. Mohan A, Tiwari P, Suri TM, et al. Single-dose oral ivermectin in mild and moderate COVID-19 (RIVET-COV): a single-centre randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Infect Chemother. 2021;27(12):1743-1749. Available at:
  38. Bermejo Galan LE, Dos Santos NM, Asato MS, et al. Phase 2 randomized study on chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin in hospitalized patients with severe manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pathog Glob Health. 2021;115(4):235-242. Available at: