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Table 5a. Systemic Corticosteroids: Selected Clinical Trial Data

Last Updated: February 29, 2024

The clinical trials described in this table do not represent all the trials that the Panel reviewed while developing the recommendations for systemic corticosteroids. The studies summarized below are those that have had the greatest impact on the Panel’s recommendations. Unless stated otherwise, the clinical trials listed below only included participants aged ≥18 years.

Table 5a. Systemic Corticosteroids: Selected Clinical Trial Data
Table 5a. Systemic Corticosteroids: Selected Clinical Trial Data


  1. RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(8):693-704. Available at:
  2. Tomazini BM, Maia IS, Cavalcanti AB, et al. Effect of dexamethasone on days alive and ventilator-free in patients with moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and COVID-19: the CoDEX randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020;324(13):1307-1316. Available at:
  3. Crothers K, DeFaccio R, Tate J, et al. Dexamethasone in hospitalised COVID-19 patients not on intensive respiratory support. Eur Respir J. 2022;60(1):2102532. Available at:
  4. COVID STEROID 2 Trial Group. Effect of 12 mg vs 6 mg of dexamethasone on the number of days alive without life support in adults with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia: the COVID STEROID 2 randomized trial. JAMA. 2021;326(18):1807-1817. Available at:
  5. Granholm A, Munch MW, Myatra SN, et al. Dexamethasone 12 mg versus 6 mg for patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxaemia: a pre-planned, secondary Bayesian analysis of the COVID STEROID 2 trial. Intensive Care Med. 2022;48(1):45-55. Available at:
  6. Dequin PF, Heming N, Meziani F, et al. Effect of hydrocortisone on 21-day mortality or respiratory support among critically ill patients with COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020;324(13):1298-1306. Available at:
  7. Angus DC, Derde L, Al-Beidh F, et al. Effect of hydrocortisone on mortality and organ support in patients with severe COVID-19: the REMAP-CAP COVID-19 corticosteroid domain randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020;324(13):1317-1329. Available at:
  8. Tang X, Feng YM, Ni JX, et al. Early use of corticosteroid may prolong SARS-CoV-2 shedding in non-intensive care unit patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: a multicenter, single-blind, randomized control trial. Respiration. 2021;100(2):116-126. Available at:
  9. Bouadma L, Mekontso-Dessap A, Burdet C, et al. High-dose dexamethasone and oxygen support strategies in intensive care unit patients with severe COVID-19 acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: the COVIDICUS randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2022;182(9):906-916. Available at:
  10. RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Higher dose corticosteroids in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 who are hypoxic but not requiring ventilatory support (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial. Lancet. 2023;401(10387):1499-1507. Available at: