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Table 5b. Inhaled Corticosteroids: Selected Clinical Trial Data

Last Updated: December 20, 2023

The clinical trials described in this table do not represent all the trials that the Panel reviewed while developing the recommendations for inhaled corticosteroids. The studies summarized below are those that have had the greatest impact on the Panel’s recommendations.

Table 5b. Inhaled Corticosteroids: Selected Clinical Trial Data
Table 5b. Inhaled Corticosteroids: Selected Clinical Trial Data


  1. Yu LM, Bafadhel M, Dorward J, et al. Inhaled budesonide for COVID-19 in people at high risk of complications in the community in the UK (PRINCIPLE): a randomised, controlled, open-label, adaptive platform trial. Lancet. 2021;398(10303):843-855. Available at:
  2. Ramakrishnan S, Nicolau DV Jr, Langford B, et al. Inhaled budesonide in the treatment of early COVID-19 (STOIC): a Phase 2, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2021;9(7):763-772. Available at:
  3. Clemency BM, Varughese R, Gonzalez-Rojas Y, et al. Efficacy of inhaled ciclesonide for outpatient treatment of adolescents and adults with symptomatic COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2022;182(1):42-49. Available at:
  4. Ezer N, Belga S, Daneman N, et al. Inhaled and intranasal ciclesonide for the treatment of COVID-19 in adult outpatients: CONTAIN Phase II randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2021;375:e068060. Available at:
  5. Duvignaud A, Lhomme E, Onaisi R, et al. Inhaled ciclesonide for outpatient treatment of COVID-19 in adults at risk of adverse outcomes: a randomised controlled trial (COVERAGE). Clin Microbiol Infect. 2022;28(7):1010-1016. Available at:
  6. Boulware DR, Lindsell CJ, Stewart TG, et al. Inhaled fluticasone furoate for outpatient treatment of COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2023;389(12):1085-1095. Available at:
  7. Reis G, Dos Santos Moreira Silva EA, Medeiros Silva DC, et al. Oral fluvoxamine with inhaled budesonide for treatment of early-onset COVID-19: a randomized platform trial. Ann Intern Med. 2023;176(5):667-675. Available at: