Last Updated: April 21, 2021
Remdesivir is an intravenous nucleotide prodrug of an adenosine analog. Remdesivir binds to the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and inhibits viral replication through premature termination of RNA transcription. It has demonstrated in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2.1 In a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, remdesivir treatment was initiated soon after inoculation; the remdesivir-treated animals had lower virus levels in the lungs and less lung damage than the control animals.2
Remdesivir is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients (aged ≥12 years and weighing ≥40 kg). It is also available through an FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized pediatric patients weighing 3.5 kg to <40 kg or aged <12 years and weighing ≥3.5 kg. Remdesivir should be administered in a hospital or a health care setting that can provide a similar level of care to an inpatient hospital.
Remdesivir has been studied in several clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19. The recommendations from the COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel (the Panel) are based on the results of these studies. See Table 2a for more information.
The safety and efficacy of combination therapy of remdesivir with corticosteroids have not been rigorously studied in clinical trials; however, there are theoretical reasons that combination therapy may be beneficial in some patients with severe COVID-19. For the Panel’s recommendations on using remdesivir with or without dexamethasone in certain hospitalized patients, see Therapeutic Management of Hospitalized Adults with COVID-19.
Monitoring and Adverse Effects
Remdesivir can cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea), elevated transaminase levels, an increase in prothrombin time (without a change in the international normalized ratio), and hypersensitivity reactions.
Liver function tests and prothrombin time should be obtained in all patients before remdesivir is administered and during treatment as clinically indicated. Remdesivir may need to be discontinued if alanine transaminase (ALT) levels increase to >10 times the upper limit of normal and should be discontinued if an increase in ALT level and signs or symptoms of liver inflammation are observed.3
Considerations in Patients With Renal Insufficiency
Each 100 mg vial of remdesivir lyophilized powder contains 3 g of sulfobutylether beta-cyclodextrin sodium (SBECD), whereas each 100 mg/20 mL vial of remdesivir solution contains 6 g of SBECD.3 SBECD is a vehicle that is primarily eliminated through the kidneys. A patient with COVID-19 who receives a loading dose of remdesivir 200 mg would receive 6 g to 12 g of SBECD, depending on the formulation. This amount of SBECD is within the safety threshold for patients with normal renal function.4 Accumulation of SBECD in patients with renal impairment may result in liver and renal toxicities. Clinicians may consider preferentially using the lyophilized powder formulation (which contains less SBECD) in patients with renal impairment.
Because both remdesivir formulations contain SBECD, patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <50 mL/min were excluded from some clinical trials of remdesivir; other trials had an eGFR cutoff of <30 mL/min. Remdesivir is not recommended for patients with an eGFR <30 mL/min due to lack of data.5 Renal function should be monitored before and during remdesivir treatment as clinically indicated.3
In two observational studies that evaluated the use of remdesivir in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, no significant differences were reported in the incidences of adverse effects or acute kidney injury between patients with an estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl) <30 mL/min and those with an estimated CrCl ≥30 mL/min.6,7 One of these studies evaluated patients who primarily received the solution formulation of remdesivir (20 patients had an estimated CrCl <30 mL/min and 115 had an estimated CrCl ≥30 mL/min);6 the other study evaluated patients who received the lyophilized powder formulation (40 patients had an estimated CrCl <30 mL/min and 307 had an estimated CrCl ≥30 mL/min).7
Clinical drug-drug interaction studies of remdesivir have not been conducted. In vitro, remdesivir is a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and of the drug transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and P-glycoprotein. It is also an inhibitor of CYP3A4, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1).3
Minimal to no reduction in remdesivir exposure is expected when remdesivir is coadministered with dexamethasone, according to information provided by Gilead Sciences (written communication, July 2020). Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine may decrease the antiviral activity of remdesivir; coadministration of these drugs is not recommended.3 Remdesivir is not expected to have any significant interactions with oseltamivir or baloxavir, according to information provided by Gilead Sciences (written communications, August and September 2020).
See Table 2e for more information.
Considerations in Pregnancy
- Pregnant patients were excluded from the clinical trials that evaluated the safety and efficacy of remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19, but preliminary reports of remdesivir use in pregnant patients from the remdesivir compassionate use program are reassuring.
- Among 86 pregnant and postpartum hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 who received compassionate use remdesivir, the therapy was well tolerated, with a low rate of serious adverse events.8
- Remdesivir should not be withheld from pregnant patients if it is otherwise indicated.
Considerations in Children
- The safety and effectiveness of using remdesivir to treat COVID-19 have not been evaluated in pediatric patients aged <12 years or weighing <40 kg.
- Remdesivir is available through an FDA EUA for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized pediatric patients weighing 3.5 kg to <40 kg or aged <12 years and weighing ≥3.5 kg.
- A clinical trial is currently evaluating the pharmacokinetics of remdesivir in children (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT04431453).
Several clinical trials that are evaluating the use of remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19 are currently underway or in development. Please see ClinicalTrials.gov for the latest information.
- Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 2020;30(3):269-271. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32020029.
- Williamson BN, Feldmann F, Schwarz B, et al. Clinical benefit of remdesivir in rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2. Nature. 2020. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32516797.
- Remdesivir (Veklury) [package insert]. Food and Drug Administration. 2020. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2020/214787Orig1s000lbl.pdf. Accessed: October 25, 2020.
- Committee for Human Medicinal Products. Background review for cyclodextrins used as excipients. 2014. Available at: https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/report/background-review-cyclodextrins-used-excipients-context-revision-guideline-excipients-label-package_en.pdf.
- Adamsick ML, Gandhi RG, Bidell MR, et al. Remdesivir in patients with acute or chronic kidney disease and COVID-19. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020;31(7):1384-1386. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32513665. .
- Pettit NN, Pisano J, Nguyen CT, et al. Remdesivir use in the setting of severe renal impairment: a theoretical concern or real risk? Clin Infect Dis. 2020;Published online ahead of print. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33315065.
- Ackley TW, McManus D, Topal JE, Cicali B,Shah S. A valid warning or clinical lore: an evaluation of safety outcomes of remdesivir in patients with impaired renal function from a multicenter matched cohort. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021;65(2). Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33229428. .
- Burwick RM, Yawetz S, Stephenson KE, et al. Compassionate use of remdesivir in pregnant women with severe COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;Published online ahead of print. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33031500.