Immunoglobulins: SARS-CoV-2 Specific
Last Updated: July 17, 2020
- There are insufficient data for the COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel to recommend either for or against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulins for the treatment of COVID-19.
Currently, there are no clinical data on the use of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins. Trials evaluating SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins are in development but not yet active and enrolling participants.
Proposed Mechanism of Action and Rationale for Use in Patients with COVID-19
Concentrated antibody preparations derived from pooled plasma collected from individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 can be manufactured as SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin, which could potentially suppress the virus and modify the inflammatory response. The use of virus-specific immunoglobulins for other viral infections (e.g., cytomegalovirus [CMV] immunoglobulin for the prevention of post-transplant CMV infection and varicella zoster immunoglobulin for postexposure prophylaxis of varicella in individuals at high-risk) has proven to be safe and effective; however, there are currently no clinical data on the use of such products for COVID-19. Potential risks may include transfusion reactions. Theoretical risks may include antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.
There are no clinical data on the use of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins for the treatment of COVID-19. Similarly, there are no clinical data on use of specific immunoglobulin or hyperimmunoglobulin products in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).
Considerations in Pregnancy
Pathogen-specific immunoglobulins are used clinically during pregnancy to prevent varicella zoster virus (VZV) and rabies and have also been used in clinical trials of therapies for congenital CMV infection.
Considerations in Children
Hyperimmunoglobulin has been used to treat several viral infections in children, including VZV, respiratory syncytial virus, and CMV; efficacy data on their use for other respiratory viruses is limited.