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Last Updated: July 8, 2021

The COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines have been developed to provide clinicians with guidance on how to care for patients with COVID-19. Because clinical information about the optimal management of COVID-19 is evolving quickly, these Guidelines will be updated frequently as published data and other authoritative information become available.

Panel Composition

Members of the COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel (the Panel) are appointed by the Panel co-chairs based on their clinical experience and expertise in patient management, translational and clinical science, and/or development of treatment guidelines. Panel members include representatives from federal agencies, health care and academic organizations, and professional societies. Federal agencies and professional societies represented on the Panel include:

  • American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
  • American Association for Respiratory Care
  • American College of Chest Physicians
  • American College of Clinical Pharmacy
  • American College of Emergency Physicians
  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
  • American Society of Hematology
  • American Thoracic Society
  • Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Department of Defense
  • Department of Veterans Affairs
  • Food and Drug Administration
  • Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • National Institutes of Health
  • Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
  • Society of Critical Care Medicine
  • Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists

The inclusion of representatives from professional societies does not imply that their societies have endorsed all elements of these Guidelines.

The names, affiliations, and financial disclosures of the Panel members and ex officio members, as well as members of the Guidelines support team, are provided in the Panel Roster and Financial Disclosure sections of the Guidelines.

Development of the Guidelines

Each section of the Guidelines is developed by a working group of Panel members with expertise in the area addressed in the section. Each working group is responsible for identifying relevant information and published scientific literature and for conducting a systematic, comprehensive review of that information and literature. The working groups propose updates to the Guidelines based on the latest published research findings and evolving clinical information.

New Guidelines sections and recommendations are reviewed and voted on by the voting members of the Panel. To be included in the Guidelines, a recommendation statement must be endorsed by a majority of Panel members; this applies to recommendations for treatments, recommendations against treatments, and cases where there is insufficient evidence to recommend either for or against treatments. Updates to existing sections that do not affect the rated recommendations are approved by Panel co-chairs without a Panel vote. Panel members are required to keep all Panel deliberations and unpublished data considered during the development of the Guidelines confidential.

Method of Synthesizing Data and Formulating Recommendations

The working groups critically review and synthesize the available data to develop recommendations. Aspects of the data that are considered can include, but are not limited to, the source of the data, the type of study (e.g., randomized controlled trial, prospective or retrospective cohort study, case series), the quality and suitability of the methods, the number of participants, and the effect sizes observed.

The recommendations in these Guidelines are based on scientific evidence and expert opinion. Each recommendation includes two ratings: an uppercase letter (A, B, or C) that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral with or without a lowercase letter (I, IIa, IIb, or III) that indicates the quality of the evidence that supports the recommendation (see Table 1).

Table 1. Recommendation Rating Scheme

Table 1. Recommendation Rating Scheme
Strength of RecommendationQuality of Evidence for Recommendation

A:  Strong recommendation for the statement

B:  Moderate recommendation for the statement

C:  Optional recommendation for the statement

I: One or more randomized trials without major limitations 

IIa: Other randomized trials or subgroup analyses of randomized trials 

IIb: Nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies 

III: Expert opinion

To develop the recommendations in these Guidelines, the Panel uses data from the rapidly growing body of published research on COVID-19. The Panel also relies heavily on experience with other diseases, supplemented with members’ evolving clinical experience with COVID-19.

In general, the recommendations in these Guidelines fall into the following categories:

  • The Panel recommends using [blank] for the treatment of COVID-19 (rating). Recommendations in this category are based on evidence from clinical trials or large cohort studies that demonstrate the clinical or virologic efficacy of a therapy in patients with COVID-19, with the potential benefits outweighing the potential risks.
  • There is insufficient evidence for the Panel to recommend either for or against the use of [blank] for the treatment of COVID-19 (no rating). This statement is used when the collective results from clinical trials and/or observational cohorts do not provide the evidence needed to support a recommendation due to too few or conflicting data.
  • The Panel recommends against the use of [blank] for the treatment of COVID-19, except in a clinical trial (rating). This recommendation is used for an intervention that has not clearly demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19 and/or has potential safety concerns. More clinical trials are needed to further define the role of the intervention.
  • The Panel recommends against the use of [blank] for the treatment of COVID-19 (rating). This recommendation is used in cases when the available data clearly show a safety concern and/or the data show no benefit for the treatment of COVID-19.

Evolving Knowledge on Treatment for COVID-19

Currently, remdesivir, an antiviral agent, is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of COVID-19. An array of drugs approved for other indications and multiple investigational agents are being studied for the treatment of COVID-19 in clinical trials around the globe. These trials can be accessed at In addition, providers can access and prescribe investigational drugs or agents that are approved or licensed for other indications through various mechanisms, including Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs), Emergency Investigational New Drug (EIND) applications, compassionate use or expanded access programs with drug manufacturers, and/or off-label use.

Whenever possible, the Panel recommends that promising, unapproved, or unlicensed treatments for COVID-19 be studied in well-designed, controlled clinical trials. This recommendation also applies to drugs that have been approved or licensed for indications other than the treatment of COVID-19. The Panel recognizes the critical importance of clinical research in generating evidence to address unanswered questions regarding the safety and efficacy of potential treatments for COVID-19. However, the Panel also realizes that many patients and providers who cannot access these potential treatments via clinical trials still seek guidance about whether to use them.

A large volume of data and publications from randomized controlled trials, observational cohorts, and case series are emerging at a very rapid pace, some in peer-reviewed journals, others as manuscripts that have not yet been peer reviewed, and, in some cases, press releases. The Panel continuously reviews the available data and assesses their scientific rigor and validity. These sources of data and the clinical experiences of the Panel members are used to determine whether new recommendations or changes to the current recommendations are warranted.

Finally, it is important to stress that the rated treatment recommendations in these Guidelines should not be considered mandates. The choice of what to do or not to do for an individual patient is ultimately decided by the patient and their provider.