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Table 2c. Ivermectin: Selected Clinical Data

Last Updated: July 19, 2021

The Panel has reviewed other clinical studies of IVM for the treatment of COVID-19.1-16 However, those studies have limitations that make them less definitive and informative than the studies discussed here. The studies summarized below are those that have had the greatest impact on the Panel’s recommendations.

Table 2c. Ivermectin: Selected Clinical Data
Table 2c. Ivermectin: Selected Clinical Data


  1. Spoorthi V, Sasank S. Utility of ivermectin and doxycycline combination for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Int Arch Integr Med. 2020;7(10):117-182. Available at:
  2. Camprubi D, Almuedo-Riera A, Marti-Soler H, et al. Lack of efficacy of standard doses of ivermectin in severe COVID-19 patients. PLoS One. 2020;15(11):e0242184. Available at:
  3. Bhattacharya R, Ray I, Mukherjee R, Chowdhury S, Kulasreshtha MK, Ghosh R. Observational study on clinical features, treatment and outcome of COVID-19 in a tertiary care centre in India - a retrospective case series. Int J Sci Res. 2020;9(10). Available at:
  4. Morgenstern J, Redondo JN, León A, et al. The use of compassionate ivermectin in the management of symptomatic outpatients and hospitalized patients with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 at the Medical Center Bournigal and the Medical Center Punta Cana, Rescue Group, Dominican Republic, from May 1 to August 10, 2020. medRxiv. 2020;Preprint. Available at:
  5. Cadegiani FA, Goren A, Wambier CG, McCoy J. Early COVID-19 therapy with azithromycin plus nitazoxanide, ivermectin or hydroxychloroquine in outpatient settings significantly reduced symptoms compared to known outcomes in untreated patients. medRxiv. 2020;Preprint. Available at:
  6. Carvallo H, Roberto H, Eugenia FM. Safety and efficacy of the combined use of ivermectin, dexamethasone, enoxaparin and aspirin against COVID 19. medRxiv. 2020;Preprint. Available at:
  7. Bukhari KHS, Asghar A, Perveen N, et al. Efficacy of ivermectin in COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate disease. medRxiv. 2021;Preprint. Available at:
  8. Elalfy H, Besheer T, El-Mesery A, et al. Effect of a combination of nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and ivermectin plus zinc supplement (MANS.NRIZ study) on the clearance of mild COVID-19. J Med Virol. 2021;93(5):3176-3183. Available at:
  9. Chahla RE, Ruiz LM, Mena T, et al. Cluster randomised trials—ivermectin repurposing for COVID-19 treatment of outpatients with mild disease in primary health care centers. Research Square. 2021;Preprint. Available at:
  10. Tanioka H, Tanioka S, Kaga K. Why COVID-19 is not so spread in Africa: how does ivermectin affect it? medRxiv. 2021;Preprint. Available at:
  11. Roy S, Samajdar SS, Tripathi SK, Mukherjee S, Bhattacharjee K. Outcome of different therapeutic interventions in mild COVID-19 patients in a single OPD clinic of West Bengal: a retrospective study. medRxiv. 2021;Preprint. Available at:
  12. Pott-Junior H, Bastos Paoliello MM, Miguel AQC, et al. Use of ivermectin in the treatment of COVID-19: a pilot trial. Toxicol Rep. 2021;8:505-510. Available at:
  13. Merino J, Borja VH, Lopez O, et al. Ivermectin and the odds of hospitalization due to COVID-19: evidence from a quasi-experimental analysis based on a public intervention in Mexico City. SocArXiv Papers. 2021;Preprint. Available at:
  14. Shahbaznejad L, Davoudi A, Eslami G, et al. Effects of ivermectin in patients with COVID-19: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical yrial. Clin Ther. 2021. Available at:
  15. Samaha AA, Mouawia H, Fawaz M, et al. Effects of a single dose of ivermectin on viral and clinical outcomes in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects: a pilot clinical trial in Lebanon. Viruses. 2021;13(6). Available at:
  16. Roman YM, Burela PA, Pasupuleti V, Piscoya A, Vidal JE, Hernandez AV. Ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. medRxiv. 2021;Preprint. Available at:
  17. Lopez-Medina E, Lopez P, Hurtado IC, et al. Effect of ivermectin on time to resolution of symptoms among adults with mild COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021;325(14):1426-1435. Available at:
  18. Ahmed S, Karim MM, Ross AG, et al. A five-day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may reduce the duration of illness. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;103:214-216. Available at:
  19. Okumus N, Demirturk N, Cetinkaya RA, et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of adding ivermectin to treatment in severe COVID-19 patients. BMC Infect Dis. 2021;21(1):411. Available at:
  20. Galan LEB, Santos NMD, Asato MS, et al. Phase 2 randomized study on chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin in hospitalized patients with severe manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pathog Glob Health. 2021;115(4):235-242. Available at:
  21. Chachar AZK, Khan KA, Asif M, Tanveer K, Khaqan A, Basri R. Effectiveness of ivermectin in SARS-COV-2/COVID-19 Patients. Int J of Sci. 2020;9:31-35. Available at:
  22. Podder CS, Chowdhury N, Sina MI, Haque W. Outcome of ivermectin treated mild to moderate COVID-19 cases: a single-centre, open-label, randomised controlled study. IMC J of Med Sci. 2020. Available at:
  23. Chowdhury ATMM, Shahbaz M, Karim MR, Islam J, Dan G, He S. A comparative study on ivermectin-doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin therapy on COVID-19 patients. EJMO. 2021;5(1):63-70. Available at:
  24. Krolewiecki A, Lifschitz A, Moragas M, et al. Antiviral effect of high-dose ivermectin in adults with COVID-19: a proof-of-concept randomized trial. Lancet. 2021. Available at:
  25. Chaccour C, Casellas A, Blanco-Di Matteo A, et al. The effect of early treatment with ivermectin on viral load, symptoms and humoral response in patients with non-severe COVID-19: A pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Lancet. 2021. Available at:
  26. Hashim HA, Maulood MF, Rasheed AW, Fatak DF, Kabah KK, Abdulamir AS. Controlled randomized clinical trial on using ivermectin with doxycycline for treating COVID-19 patients in Baghdad, Iraq. medRxiv. 2020;Preprint. Available at:
  27. Mohan A, Tiwari P, Suri T, et al. Ivermectin in mild and moderate COVID-19 (RIVET-COV): a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Research Square. 2021;Preprint. Available at:
  28. Gonzalez JLB, Gámez MG, Enciso EAM, et al. Efficacy and safety of ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19. A randomized controlled trial. medRxiv. 2021;Preprint. Available at:
  29. Niaee MS, Gheibi N, Namdar P, et al. Ivermectin as an adjunct treatment for hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients: a randomized multi-center clinical trial. Research Square. 2020;Preprint. Available at:
  30. Rajter JC, Sherman MS, Fatteh N, Vogel F, Sacks J, Rajter JJ. Use of ivermectin is associated with lower mortality in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019: the ICON study. Chest. 2020. Available at:
  31. Soto-Becerra P, Culquichicón C, Hurtado-Roca Y, Araujo-Castillo RV. Real-world effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and ivermectin among hospitalized COVID-19 patients: results of a target trial emulation using observational data from a nationwide healthcare system in Peru. medRxiv. 2020;Preprint. Available at:
  32. Khan MSI, Khan MSI, Debnath CR, et al. Ivermectin treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. Arch Bronconeumol. 2020;56(12):828-830. Available at: