Special Considerations in Solid Organ Transplant, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant, and Cellular Immunotherapy Candidates, Donors, and Recipients
Last Updated: May 31, 2022
Vaccination for COVID-19
Potential Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy Candidates
Potential Transplant Donors
Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy Recipients With COVID-19
|Rating of Recommendations: A = Strong; B = Moderate; C = Weak|
Rating of Evidence: I = One or more randomized trials without major limitations; IIa = Other randomized trials or subgroup analyses of randomized trials; IIb = Nonrandomized trials or observational cohort studies; III = Expert opinion
Treating COVID-19 in solid organ transplant, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT), and cellular immunotherapy recipients can be challenging due to the presence of coexisting medical conditions, the potential for transplant-related cytopenias, and the need for chronic immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease. Transplant recipients may also have a higher risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 given their frequent contact with the health care system. Since immunosuppressive agents modulate several aspects of the host’s immune response, the severity of COVID-19 could potentially be affected by the type and intensity of the immunosuppressive effect of the agent, as well as by specific combinations of immunosuppressive agents. Some transplant recipients have medical comorbidities that have been associated with more severe cases of COVID-19 and a greater risk of mortality, which makes the impact of transplantation on disease severity difficult to assess.
The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, the American Society of Transplantation (AST), the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT), and the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) provide guidance for clinicians who are caring for transplant recipients with COVID-19 and guidance on screening potential donors and transplant or cellular immunotherapy candidates. In addition, the American Society of Hematology offers guidance regarding COVID-19 vaccination for transplant and cellular immunotherapy recipients. This section of the COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines complements these sources and focuses on considerations for managing COVID-19 in solid organ transplant, HCT, and cellular immunotherapy recipients. The optimal management and therapeutic approach to COVID-19 in these populations is unknown. At this time, the procedures for evaluating and managing COVID-19 in transplant recipients are the same as those for nontransplant patients (AIII). See Therapeutic Management of Hospitalized Adults With COVID-19 and Therapeutic Management of Nonhospitalized Adults With COVID-19 for more information. The risks and benefits of each medication that is used to treat COVID-19 may be different for transplant patients and nontransplant patients.
COVID-19 Vaccination in Solid Organ Transplant, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant, and Cellular Immunotherapy Candidates, Donors, and Recipients
The clinical trials that evaluated the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines excluded severely immunocompromised patients.1-3 The Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices notes that the currently authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccines are not live vaccines; therefore, they can be safely administered to immunocompromised people.4 However, solid organ transplant recipients have reduced immunological antibody responses following a primary 2-dose or 3-dose series of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.5-8
Given the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in the general population and the increased risk of worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in transplant and cellular immunotherapy recipients, the COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel (the Panel) recommends COVID-19 vaccination for potential transplant and cellular immunotherapy candidates and recipients (AIII). See the CDC website COVID-19 Vaccines for People Who Are Moderately or Severely Immunocompromised for the current COVID-19 vaccination schedule for all populations, including transplant and cellular immunotherapy recipients.
When determining the timing of COVID-19 vaccination in solid organ transplant, HCT, and cellular immunotherapy recipients, clinicians should consider the following factors:
- Ideally, solid organ transplant candidates should receive COVID-19 vaccines while they are awaiting transplant.
- In general, vaccination should be completed at least 2 weeks prior to a solid organ transplant or started 1 month after a solid organ transplant.
- In certain situations, it may be appropriate to delay vaccination until 3 months after a solid organ transplant, such as when T cell- or B cell-ablative therapy (with antithymocyte globulin or rituximab) is used at the time of transplant.9
- At this time, reducing the dose of immunosuppressants and withholding immunosuppressants prior to vaccination are not recommended.
- COVID-19 vaccines can be offered as early as 3 months after a patient receives HCT or chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy, although the efficacy of the vaccines may be reduced compared to the efficacy observed in the general population.10-12 Patients who are scheduled to receive cytotoxic or B cell-depleting therapies should complete their COVID-19 vaccination prior to initiation or between cycles of cytotoxic or B cell-depleting therapies, if possible.
- After completing COVID-19 vaccination, immunocompromised persons should be advised to continue to exercise precautions to reduce their risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and infection (e.g., they should wear a mask, maintain a distance of 6 feet from others, and avoid crowds and poorly ventilated spaces).13
There is insufficient evidence for the Panel to recommend either for or against the use of SARS-CoV-2 serologic testing to assess for immunity or to guide clinical decisions about using COVID-19 vaccines. It is currently unknown whether revaccination offers a clinical benefit for people who received COVID-19 vaccines during treatment with immunosuppressive drugs.
Vaccinating household members, close contacts, and health care providers who provide care to transplant and cellular immunotherapy candidates and recipients is important to protect these patients from infection. All close contacts are strongly encouraged to get vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible (AIII). There is evidence that vaccinated individuals who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 have lower viral loads than unvaccinated individuals14,15 and that COVID-19 vaccines reduce the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections not only among vaccinated individuals but also among their household contacts.16-18 All potential organ and stem cell donors are encouraged to get vaccinated against COVID-19 (AI).
Vaccination remains the most effective way to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and should be considered the first line of prevention. However, some individuals, including some transplant candidates and recipients, cannot or may not mount an adequate protective response to COVID-19 vaccines. These patients are at high risk of progressing to severe COVID-19 and may be eligible to receive the anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) tixagevimab plus cilgavimab (Evusheld) as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). See Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection for more information.
Assessing SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy Candidates and Donors
The risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from donors to candidates is unknown. The probability that a donor or candidate may have SARS-CoV-2 infection can be estimated by considering the epidemiologic risk, obtaining a clinical history, and testing with molecular techniques. No current testing strategy is sensitive enough or specific enough to totally exclude active infection.
Assessing Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy Candidates
The Panel recommends performing diagnostic molecular or antigen testing for SARS-CoV-2 for all potential solid organ transplant candidates with signs and symptoms that suggest acute COVID-19 (AIII). All potential solid organ transplant candidates should be assessed for exposure to COVID-19 and clinical symptoms that are compatible with COVID-19 before they are called in for transplantation and should undergo diagnostic molecular testing for SARS-CoV-2 shortly before a solid organ transplant (AIII).
Clinicians should perform diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2 in all HCT and cellular immunotherapy candidates who exhibit symptoms. All candidates should also undergo diagnostic molecular testing for SARS-CoV-2 shortly before HCT or cellular immunotherapy (AIII).
Living solid organ donors should be counseled on strategies to prevent infection and be monitored for exposures and symptoms in the 14 days prior to a scheduled transplant.19 Living donors should undergo SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing with a sample collected from the respiratory tract within 3 days of donation. Deceased donors should be tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection using an RT-PCR assay of a sample taken from the upper respiratory tract within 72 hours of death; ideally, the test should be performed as close to organ recovery as possible. Deceased donors can be considered for donation if the results are negative. Lower respiratory sampling for COVID-19 testing is required for potential lung transplant donors by the United Network for Organ Sharing.20
The Panel recommends following the guidance from medical professional organizations and assessing all potential HCT donors for exposure to COVID-19 and clinical symptoms that are compatible with COVID-19 before donation (AIII). HCT donors should practice good hygiene and avoid crowded places and large gatherings during the 28 days prior to donation.21 Recommendations for screening HCT donors are outlined in the ASTCT and EBMT guidelines.
If SARS-CoV-2 Infection Is Detected or Strongly Suspected
If SARS-CoV-2 is detected or if infection is strongly suspected in a potential solid organ transplant candidate, transplant should be deferred, if possible. The optimal disease-free interval before transplantation is not known. When deciding on the appropriate timing for the transplant, clinicians should consider both the risk of viral transmission and the risks to the candidate if the transplant is deferred, such as the potential progression of the underlying disease and the risk of death. This decision should be continually reassessed as conditions evolve.
Donors for solid organ transplants who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 are medically ineligible for donation.22 Current guidelines recommend deferring transplants or immunotherapy procedures, including peripheral blood stem cell mobilization, bone marrow harvest, T cell collection, and conditioning/lymphodepletion, in HCT and cellular immunotherapy candidates who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 or who have clinical symptoms that are consistent with infection. Final decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis while weighing the risks of delaying or altering therapy for the underlying disease.
Transplant Recipients With COVID-19
Solid organ transplant recipients who are receiving immunosuppressive therapy should be considered to be at increased risk for severe COVID-19.23,24 A national survey of 88 U.S. transplant centers conducted between March 24 and 31, 2020, reported that 148 solid organ transplant recipients received a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (69.6% were kidney recipients, 15.5% were liver recipients, 8.8% were heart recipients, and 6.1% were lung recipients).25 COVID-19 was mild in 54% of recipients and moderate in 21% of recipients, and 25% of recipients were critically ill. Initial reports of transplant recipients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 suggest mortality rates of up to 28%.26-30
Risk of Graft Rejection
There are concerns that COVID-19 itself may increase the risk for acute rejection. Acute cellular rejection should not be presumed in solid organ transplant recipients without biopsy confirmation, regardless of whether the individual has COVID-19. Similarly, immunosuppressive therapy should be initiated in recipients with or without COVID-19 who have rejection confirmed by a biopsy.23
There are limited data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCT31 and cellular immunotherapy recipients.32 Recent data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research demonstrated a mortality rate of approximately 30% within a month of COVID-19 diagnosis among a cohort of 318 HCT recipients.33 This mortality rate was observed in both allogeneic and autologous recipients. Older age (≥50 years), male sex, and receipt of a COVID-19 diagnosis within 12 months of transplantation were associated with a higher risk of mortality among allogeneic recipients. In autologous recipients, patients with lymphoma had a higher risk of mortality than patients who had plasma cell disorder or myeloma.
A smaller study demonstrated a slightly lower mortality rate among HCT and cellular immunotherapy recipients than earlier reports. This study found that the number of comorbidities, the presence of infiltrates on initial chest imaging, and neutropenia were predictors for increased disease severity.34 Additional factors that have been used to determine the clinical severity of other respiratory viral infections include the degree of cytopenia, the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the graft source, the degree of mismatch, and the need for further immunosuppression to manage graft-versus-host disease. Prolonged viral shedding has been described in solid organ transplant and HCT recipients; this can have implications for preventing infection and for the timing of therapeutic interventions.35
Treating COVID-19 in Transplant Recipients
Currently, remdesivir is the only antiviral drug that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of COVID-19 in both nonhospitalized and hospitalized patients. Outpatient transplant recipients who are immunosuppressed or who have certain underlying comorbidities are candidates for several other therapeutic agents that are available through Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs). See Therapeutic Management of Nonhospitalized Adults With COVID-19 for more information.
When treating hospitalized patients with mild to moderate, symptomatic COVID-19, clinicians should consider administering the therapeutics used in nonhospitalized patients with similar disease severity. Data from a large randomized controlled trial found that a short course of dexamethasone (6 mg once daily for up to 10 days) improved survival in hospitalized people with severe COVID-19 who were mechanically ventilated or who required supplemental oxygen.36 Tocilizumab or baricitinib used in combination with dexamethasone is recommended for some patients with severe or critical COVID-19 who exhibit rapid respiratory decompensation (see Therapeutic Management of Hospitalized Adults With COVID-19).36-38 Because dexamethasone, tocilizumab, and baricitinib are immunosuppressive agents, patients who receive these medications should be closely monitored for secondary infections.
Therapeutic anticoagulation for transplant recipients who are hospitalized for COVID-19 should be managed similarly to anticoagulation for other hospitalized patients. Patients with platelet counts <50,000 cells/µL should not receive therapeutic anticoagulation to treat COVID-19. Clinicians should follow hospital protocols for managing anticoagulation in patients with thrombocytopenia.
The Panel’s recommendations for the use of remdesivir, dexamethasone, tocilizumab, baricitinib, and anticoagulation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 can be found in Therapeutic Management of Hospitalized Adults With COVID-19.
Clinicians should pay special attention to the potential for drug-drug interactions and overlapping toxicities between treatments for COVID-19 and concomitant medications, such as immunosuppressants that are used to prevent allograft rejection, antimicrobials that are used to prevent opportunistic infections, and other medications. Dose modifications may be necessary for drugs that are used to treat COVID-19 in transplant recipients with pre-existing organ dysfunction. Adjustments to the immunosuppressive regimen should be individualized based on disease severity, the specific immunosuppressants used, the type of transplant, the time since transplantation, the drug concentration, and the risk of graft rejection.27 Clinicians who are treating COVID-19 in transplant patients should consult a transplant specialist before adjusting immunosuppressive medications (AIII).
Calcineurin inhibitors (e.g., cyclosporine, tacrolimus) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (e.g., everolimus, sirolimus), which are commonly used to prevent allograft rejection, have a narrow therapeutic index. Medications that inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes or P-glycoprotein may put patients who receive these drugs at risk of clinically significant drug-drug interactions, increasing the need for therapeutic drug monitoring and the need to assess for signs of toxicity or rejection.39
A 5-day course of ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid) is 1 of the preferred therapies for treating mild to moderate COVID-19 in nonhospitalized patients who are at risk for disease progression. However, this regimen has the potential for significant and complex drug-drug interactions with concomitant medications, primarily due to the ritonavir component of the combination. Boosting with ritonavir, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, is required to increase the exposure of nirmatrelvir to a concentration that is effective against SARS-CoV-2. Ritonavir may also increase concentrations of certain concomitant medications, including calcineurin and mTOR inhibitors, during the treatment course and for ≥3 days after ritonavir is discontinued. Significant increases in the concentrations of these drugs may lead to serious and sometimes life-threatening drug toxicities.
For nonhospitalized transplant patients who are receiving calcineurin or mTOR inhibitors as part of their antirejection regimen, AST recommends either an anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAb or remdesivir as the first-line therapy.40 If these drugs are not available or feasible to use, ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir may be used with caution. Ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir should only be used when close monitoring of the patient is possible, and clinicians should consult with transplant specialists during the treatment course. General guidance for coadministering ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir with concomitant medications includes temporarily withholding certain immunosuppressive agents (e.g., tacrolimus, everolimus, sirolimus) or reducing the dosage of certain immunosuppressive agents (e.g., cyclosporine), monitoring the patient closely for toxicities, and performing therapeutic drug monitoring (if possible) during and after the treatment course of ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir.40,41
Some small case series have reported real-life success in using these recommendations to manage patients;42,43 however, cases of significant toxicities due to supratherapeutic tacrolimus concentrations have also been reported.44 The reintroduction or dose modification of calcineurin and mTOR inhibitors in patients who have completed a course of ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir should be guided by therapeutic drug monitoring. Clinicians should also consult with a specialist who has experience with dose management. Clinicians should take additional precautions when treating transplant recipients who are also receiving other concomitant medications (e.g., certain triazole antifungals) that may interact with ritonavir, the immunosuppressants, or both. The extent and significance of multiple drug-drug interactions are much more complex and unpredictable.
Clinicians should refer to resources such as the Liverpool COVID-19 Drug Interactions website, Drug-Drug Interactions Between Ritonavir-Boosted Nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid) and Concomitant Medications, and the EUA fact sheet for ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir for guidance on identifying and managing potential drug-drug interactions. If significant interactions prohibit the concomitant use of ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir, another COVID-19 treatment option should be used.
Among the drugs that are commonly used to treat hospitalized patients with COVID-19, dexamethasone is a moderate inducer of CYP3A4, and interleukin-6 inhibitors may lead to increased metabolism of CYP substrates. Clinicians should closely monitor the serum concentrations of calcineurin and mTOR inhibitors when these drugs are used.
Additional details about the adverse effects and drug-drug interactions of antiviral medications, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody products, and immune-based therapies for COVID-19 are noted in Tables 2f, 3c, and 4f.
- Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, et al. Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(5):403-416. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33378609.
- Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, et al. Safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(27):2603-2615. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33301246.
- Food and Drug Administration. Vaccines and related biological products advisory committee meeting. February 26, 2021. 2021. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/media/146217/download.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current COVID-19 ACIP vaccine recommendations. 2021. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/vacc-specific/covid-19.html. Accessed May 23, 2022.
- Boyarsky BJ, Werbel WA, Avery RK, et al. Antibody response to 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine series in solid organ transplant recipients. JAMA. 2021;325(21):2204-2206. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33950155.
- Hallett AM, Greenberg RS, Boyarsky BJ, et al. SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccine antibody response and reactogenicity in heart and lung transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2021;40(12):1579-1588. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34456108.
- Mazzola A, Todesco E, Drouin S, et al. Poor antibody response after two doses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine in transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2022;74(6):1093-1096. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34166499.
- Kamar N, Abravanel F, Marion O, et al. Three doses of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in solid-organ transplant recipients. N Engl J of Med. 2021;385(7):661-662. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34161700.
- American Society of Transplantation. COVID-19 vaccine FAQ sheet. 2021. Available at: https://www.myast.org/sites/default/files/2021_08_13%20COVID%20VACCINE%20FAQ-Prof8132021_FINAL.pdf.
- American Society of Hematology. ASH-ASTCT COVID-19 vaccination for HCT and CAR T cell recipients: frequently asked questions. 2022. Available at: https://www.hematology.org/covid-19/ash-astct-covid-19-vaccination-for-hct-and-car-t-cell-recipients. Accessed May 20, 2022.
- Ljungman P, Avetisyan G. Influenza vaccination in hematopoietic SCT recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2008;42(10):637-641. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18724396.
- Ram R, Hagin D, Kikozashvilli N, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in patients after allogeneic HCT or CD19-based CART therapy-a single-center prospective cohort study. Transplant Cell Ther. 2021;27(9):788-794. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34214738.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Stay up to date with your COVID-19 vaccines. 2022. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines.html. Accessed March 22, 2022.
- Levine-Tiefenbrun M, Yelin I, Katz R, et al. Initial report of decreased SARS-CoV-2 viral load after inoculation with the BNT162b2 vaccine. Nat Med. 2021;27(5):790-792. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33782619.
- Petter E, Mor O, Zuckerman N, et al. Initial real world evidence for lower viral load of individuals who have been vaccinated by BNT162b2. medRxiv. 2021;Preprint. Available at: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.08.21251329v1.
- Salo J, Hagg M, Kortelainen M, et al. The indirect effect of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination on healthcare workers' unvaccinated household members. Nat Commun. 2022;13(1):1162. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35246536.
- Madewell ZJ, Yang Y, Longini IM, Jr., Halloran ME, Dean NE. Household secondary attack rates of SARS-CoV-2 by variant and vaccination status: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(4):e229317. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35482308.
- de Gier B, Andeweg S, Backer JA, et al. Vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 transmission to household contacts during dominance of Delta variant (B.1.617.2), the Netherlands, August to September 2021. Euro Surveill. 2021;26(44). Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34738514.
- American Society of Transplantation. COVID-19 resources for transplant community. 2022. Available at: https://www.myast.org/covid-19-information. Accessed May 23, 2022.
- United Network for Organ Sharing. Lower respiratory testing of all potential lung donors for SARS-CoV-2 now required. 2021. Available at: https://unos.org/news/sars-cov-2-lower-respiratory-testing-potential-lung-donors-may-27/.
- American Society For Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. ASTCT interim patient guidelines. 2020. Available at: https://www.astct.org/viewdocument/astct-interim-patient-guidelines-ap. Accessed May 23, 2022.
- Association of Organ Procurement Organizations. Information about COVID-19 (coronavirus) is being released rapidly. We will post updates as we receive them. 2020. Available at: https://www.aopo.org/information-about-covid-19-coronavirus-is-being-released-rapidly-we-will-post-updates-as-we-receive-them/. Accessed May 23, 2022.
- Fix OK, Hameed B, Fontana RJ, et al. Clinical best practice advice for hepatology and liver transplant providers during the COVID-19 pandemic: AASLD expert panel consensus statement. Hepatology. 2020;72(1):287-304. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32298473.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Underlying medical conditions associated with high risk for severe COVID-19: information for healthcare providers. 2022. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-care/underlyingconditions.html. Accessed May 23, 2022.
- Boyarsky BJ, Po-Yu Chiang T, Werbel WA, et al. Early impact of COVID-19 on transplant center practices and policies in the United States. Am J Transplant. 2020;20(7):1809-1818. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32282982.
- Akalin E, Azzi Y, Bartash R, et al. COVID-19 and kidney transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(25):2475-2477. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32329975.
- Pereira MR, Mohan S, Cohen DJ, et al. COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients: initial report from the US epicenter. Am J Transplant. 2020;20(7):1800-1808. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32330343.
- Alberici F, Delbarba E, Manenti C, et al. A single center observational study of the clinical characteristics and short-term outcome of 20 kidney transplant patients admitted for SARS-CoV2 pneumonia. Kidney Int. 2020;97(6):1083-1088. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32354634.
- Montagud-Marrahi E, Cofan F, Torregrosa JV, et al. Preliminary data on outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a Spanish single center cohort of kidney recipients. Am J Transplant. 2020;20(10):2958-2959. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32368838.
- Kates OS, Haydel BM, Florman SS, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 in solid organ transplant: a multicenter cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;73(11):e4090-e4099. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32766815.
- Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research. COVID-19 reported data. 2022. Available at: https://www.cibmtr.org/Covid19/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed May 23, 2022.
- Gold JAW, Wong KK, Szablewski CM, et al. Characteristics and clinical outcomes of adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19—Georgia, March 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(18):545-550. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32379729.
- Sharma A, Bhatt NS, St Martin A, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation recipients: an observational cohort study. Lancet Haematol. 2021;8(3):e185-e193. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33482113.
- Shah GL, DeWolf S, Lee YJ, et al. Favorable outcomes of COVID-19 in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation. J Clin Invest. 2020;130(12):6656-6667. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32897885.
- Aydillo T, Gonzalez-Reiche AS, Aslam S, et al. Shedding of viable SARS-CoV-2 after immunosuppressive therapy for cancer. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2586-2588. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33259154.
- RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial. Lancet. 2021;397(10285):1637-1645. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33933206.
- REMAP-CAP Investigators, Gordon AC, Mouncey PR, et al. Interleukin-6 receptor antagonists in critically ill patients with COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(16):1491-1502. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33631065.
- Kalil AC, Patterson TF, Mehta AK, et al. Baricitinib plus remdesivir for hospitalized adults with COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(9):795-807. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33306283.
- Elens L, Langman LJ, Hesselink DA, et al. Pharmacologic treatment of transplant recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2: considerations regarding therapeutic drug monitoring and drug-drug interactions. Ther Drug Monit. 2020;42(3):360-368. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32304488.
- American Society of Transplantation. AST statement on oral antiviral therapy for COVID-19 for organ transplant recipients. 2022. Available at: https://www.myast.org/sites/default/files/AST%20Statement%20on%20Oral%20Antiviral%20Therapy%20for%20COVID%20Jan%204%20%282%29.pdf.
- Lange NW, Salerno DM, Jennings DL, et al. Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir use: managing clinically significant drug-drug interactions with transplant immunosuppressants. Am J of Transplant. 2022;Published online ahead of print. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35015924.
- Salerno DM, Jennings DL, Lange NW, et al. Early clinical experience with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir for the treatment of COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2022;Published online ahead of print. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35278260.
- Wang AX, Koff A, Hao D, Tuznik NM, Huang Y. Effect of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir on calcineurin inhibitor levels: early experience in four SARS-CoV-2 infected kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2022;Published online ahead of print. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35158412.
- Rose DT, Gandhi SM, Bedard RA, et al. Supratherapeutic tacrolimus concentrations with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir in solid organ transplant recipients requiring hospitalization: a case series using rifampin for reversal. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2022;Accepted manuscript. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/ofid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ofid/ofac238/6585265.