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Table 3a. Immune-Based Therapy Under Evaluation for Treatment of COVID-19: Clinical Data to Date

Last Updated: June 11, 2020

Information presented in this table may include data from pre-print/non-peer reviewed articles. This table will be updated as new information becomes available.

Table 3a. Immune-Based Therapy Under Evaluation for Treatment of COVID-19: Clinical Data to Date
Table 3a. Immune-Based Therapy Under Evaluation for Treatment of COVID-19: Clinical Data to Date


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  7. Mair-Jenkins J, Saavedra-Campos M, Baillie JK, et al. The effectiveness of convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe acute respiratory infections of viral etiology: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis. J Infect Dis. 2015;211(1):80-90. Available at:
  8. Soo YO, Cheng Y, Wong R, et al. Retrospective comparison of convalescent plasma with continuing high-dose methylprednisolone treatment in SARS patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10(7):676-678. Available at:
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  11. Spiegel M, Pichlmair A, Muhlberger E, Haller O, Weber F. The antiviral effect of interferon-beta against SARS-coronavirus is not mediated by MxA protein. J Clin Virol. 2004;30(3):211-213. Available at:
  12. Interferon alfa-2b (INTRON A) [package insert]. Food and Drug Administration. 2018. Available at: label/2018/103132Orig1s5199lbl.pdf. Accessed: April 8, 2020.
  13. Peginterferon alfa-2a (PEGASYS) [package insert]. Food and Drug Administration. 2017. Available at: Accessed: April 8, 2020.
  14. Shalhoub S, Farahat F, Al-Jiffri A, et al. IFN-alpha2a or IFN-beta1a in combination with ribavirin to treat Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus pneumonia: a retrospective study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015;70(7):2129-2132. Available at:
  15. Arabi YM, Asiri AY, Assiri AM, et al. Treatment of Middle East respiratory syndrome with a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon-beta1b (MIRACLE trial): statistical analysis plan for a recursive two-stage group sequential randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2020;21(1):8. Available at:
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  20. Schofield A. Synairgen to start trial of SNG001 in COVID-19. 2020; Accessed April 8, 2020.
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  23. Anakinra (Kineret) [package insert]. Food and Drug Administration. 2012. Available at: Accessed: April 8, 2020.
  24. Aouba A, Baldolli A, Geffray L, et al. Targeting the inflammatory cascade with anakinra in moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia: case series. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020. Available at:
  25. Cavalli G, De Luca G, Campochiaro C, et al. Interleukin-1 blockade with high-dose anakinra in patients with COVID-19, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and hyperinflammation: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Rheumatology. 2020. Available at: article/PIIS2665-9913(20)30127-2/fulltext.
  26. Sarilumab (KEVZARA) [package insert]. Food and Drug Administration. 2018. Available at: label/2018/761037s001lbl.pdf. Accessed April 8, 2020.
  27. Wang Z, Yang B, Li Q, Wen L, Zhang R. Clinical features of 69 cases with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020. Available at:
  28. Regeneron and Sanofi provide update on U.S. Phase 2/3 adaptive-designed trial of KEVZARA® (sarilumab) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients [press release]. 2020.
  29. Siltuximab (SYLVANT) [package insert]. Food and Drug Administration. 2019. Available at: label/2019/125496s018lbl.pdf. Accessed: April 8, 2020.
  30. Gritti G, Raimondi F, Ripamonti D, et al. Use of siltuximab in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ventilatory support. medRxiv. 2020. Available at:
  31. Food and Drug Administration. ACTEMRA (tocilizumab) Prescribing Information. 2019.Available at: docs/label/2019/125276s127,125472s040lbl.pdf. Accessed April 8, 2020.
  32. Sciascia S, Apra F, Baffa A, et al. Pilot prospective open, single-arm multicentre study on off-label use of tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2020;38(3):529-532. Available at:
  33. Xu X, Han M, Li T, et al. Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020. Available at: https://
  34. Baricitinib (OLUMIANT) [package insert]. Food and Drug Administration. 2019. Available at: Accessed April 8, 2020.
  35. Richardson P, Griffin I, Tucker C, et al. Baricitinib as potential treatment for 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):e30-e31. Available at: